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 Volume 1 Chapter 6

Chapter 6

The Putumayo Orogen of Amazonia: A Synthesis   

Mauricio IBAÑEZ–MEJIA

https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.35.2019.06


ISBN impreso obra completa: 978-958-52959-1-9

ISBN digital obra completa: 978-958-52959-6-4

ISBN impreso Vol. 1: 978-958-52959-2-6

ISBN digital Vol. 1: 978-958-52959-7-1​


Citation is suggested as: 

Ibañez–Mejia, M. 2020. The Putumayo Orogen of Amazonia: A synthesis. In: Gómez, J. & Mateus–Zabala, D. (editors), The Geology of Colombia, Volume 1 Proterozoic – Paleozoic. Servicio Geológico Colombiano, Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales 35, p. 101–131. Bogotá. https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.35.2019.06


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​​​​Abstract 


Meso– and Neoproterozoic paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that Amazonia played an important role in the assembly of Rodinia, and that its incorporation into this supercontinent led to continent–continent collision(s) with the Grenville Orogen of Laurentia and the Sveconorwegian Orogen of Baltica. The Sunsás–Aguapeí belt of SW Amazonia has traditionally been regarded as the geological evidence of such interactions, although it is becoming increasing clear that the metamorphic and tectonic history of this margin does not match the grade and timing that would be expected from interactions with the (near)–Adirondian margin of the Grenville, or with the Sveconorwegian margin of Fennoscandia. Massifs of amphibolite– to granulite–facies basement of late Proterozoic age have been known to exist in the northern Andes for many decades, but an autochthonous late Meso– to early Neoproterozoic orogenic belt in the western Guiana Shield that is un–remobilized by Andean tectonics, remained unknown. The recent discovery of such a belt, hidden under the Putumayo Foreland Basin, allowed, for the first time, to directly link the basement inliers of the Colombian Andes with the western Guiana Shield. Furthermore, the improved geochronologic database of some cordilleran inliers and Putumayo Basin basement, using high–spatial–resolution U–Pb methods, has permitted a more complete reconstruction of their evolution. This orogenic belt, which owing to its geographical location obtained the name 'Putumayo Orogen', holds key information about Amazonia's Meso– to early Neoproterozoic tectonics and is of great geodynamic significance in understanding the role played by this craton during amalgamation of the Rodinia supercontinent. This chapter provides a brief overview of the currently available geochronologic data and hypothesized tectonic evolution of the Putumayo Orogenic Cycle, with particular emphasis on its reconstruction within a dynamic framework of Laurentia–Amazonia–Baltica interactions in the second half of the Proterozoic Eon and during Rodinia supercontinent accretion.

 

Keywords: Amazonia, Putumayo Orogen, Rodinia, Proterozoic tectonics, collisional orogenesis.



​​Resumen


Reconstrucciones paleogeográficas de los periodos Meso‒ y Neoproterozoico indican que Amazonia jugó un papel importante durante la amalgamación de Rodinia, y que su incorporación al núcleo de este supercontinente involucró colisiones continente‒continente con el Orógeno Grenville de Laurentia y el Orógeno Sueco–Noruego de Báltica. El cinturón orogénico Sunsás‒Aguapeí en la margen SW de Amazonia ha sido tradicionalmente considerado como la principal evidencia geológica de dichas interacciones; sin embargo, cada vez es más claro que la historia metamórfica y tectónica de este orógeno no coincide ni en grado metamórfico ni en edad con lo que se esperaría si este hubiese colisionado con la margen adirondiana del Orógeno Grenville o la margen sueco–noruega de Fenoscandia. Aunque la ocurrencia de bloques de basamento con asociaciones metamórficas en facies anfibolita a granulita y edad proterozoica tardía en los Andes del norte es bien conocida desde hace varias décadas, la existencia de un cinturón orogénico autóctono mesoproterozoico tardío a neoproterozoico temprano en la margen occidental del Escudo de Guayana, el cual no haya sido retrabajado durante la Orogenia Andina, fue por mucho tiempo desconocida. El reciente descubrimiento de dicho cinturón orogénico bajo la cuña sedimentaria de la cuenca de antepaís del Putumayo ha permitido, por primera vez, una correlación directa entre los bloques de basamento expuestos en los Andes colombianos y la margen occidental del Escudo de Guayana. En adición a esto, los esfuerzos recientes realizados para expandir la base de datos geocronológica de los bloques de basamento cordilleranos y el basamento de la Cuenca del Putumayo, particularmente utilizando métodos de datación U‒Pb de alta resolución espacial, han permitido realizar una reconstrucción más completa de su evolución tectónica. Este cinturón orogénico, que debido a su localización geográfica ha recibido el nombre de 'Orógeno Putumayo', contiene información crucial sobre la evolución tectónica meso‒ neoproterozoica temprana de Amazonia y es de gran importancia geodinámica para entender el rol de este gran bloque continental en la amalgamación del supercontinente Rodinia. El objetivo de este capítulo es proporcionar una breve síntesis de la información geocronológica existente y la evolución tectónica propuesta del Ciclo Orogénico Putumayo, haciendo énfasis particular en su reconstrucción dentro de un marco dinámico global de interacciones entre Laurentia, Amazonia y Báltica en la segunda mitad del Proterozoico y durante la acreción del supercontinente Rodinia.

 

Palabras clave: Amazonia, Orógeno Putumayo, Rodinia, tectónica proterozoica, orogenia colisional.​



Abbreviations 


AMCG                                            Anorthosite–Mangerite–Charnockite–Granite

CHUR                                           Chondritic uniform reservoir

E–MORB                                  Enriched–mid ocean ridge basalt

FM                                                     Florencia Margin

GAPES                                       Garnet–Pyroxene–Plagioclase–Quartz geobarometer of Eckert et al. (1991)

GHS Greater                 Himalayan Sequence

GLOOS                                      Global subducting sediments

LA–ICP–MS                      Laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry

LIP                                                      Large igneous province

RNJ                                                  Río Negro–Juruena

RSI                                                    Rondonian–San Ignacio

SAMBA                                     South America Baltica

SIMS                                             Secondary ion mass spectrometry

SM                                                     Solita Margin

TIMS                                               Thermal ionization mass spectrometry

TWQ                                               Software and thermodynamic database of Berman (1991)

UHT                                                 Ultra–high temperature

VM                                                     Vergel Margin


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