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Sedimentitas marinas del Neógeno en la bahía de Tumaco, Nariño
Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic Uplift of the Northern Andes: Paleogeographic Implications
By Andrés MORA, Diego VILLAGÓMEZ, Mauricio PARRA, Víctor M. CABALLERO, Richard SPIKINGS, Brian K. HORTON, Josué Alejandro MORA–BOHÓRQUEZ, Richard A. KETCHAM and Juan Pablo ARIAS–MARTÍNEZ
We summarize recent work regarding the geologic evolution of the northern Andes. Our intention is to present current information so that scientists from other disciplines can differentiate data from interpretations. In this effort, we focus on thermochronological data that provide precise places, dates, and rates. Thermochronological data provide cooling histories for rocks of the upper crust, whereas provenance data offer insights on rocks that have been eroded away. By combining published data, we provide a critical overview of recent paleogeographic interpretations. Specifically, we discuss hypotheses such as (i) an Eocene proto–Magdalena River draining towards the Maracaibo Basin, (ii) a closed proto–Magdalena Basin from late Eocene to middle Miocene time, (iii) Miocene closure of the Isthmus of Panamá, (iv) late Cenozoic surface uplift of the Eastern Cordillera, and (v) Cenozoic eastward advance of the Orinoco River. We conclude that in most cases, the favored ideas remain intriguing hypotheses but there remains room for alternative interpretations. This summary intends to provide a cautionary note on the use of limited data sets to provide paleogeographic interpretations for the northern Andes.
Keywords: paleogeography, thermochronology, U–Pb geochronology, sedimentary provenance, rock uplift, surface uplift, paleoelevation, paleodrainages.