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​​​Volcán Tabor, Ibagué, Tolima

 Volume 4 Chapter 12

Chapter 12

The Algeciras Fault System of the Upper Magdalena Valley, Huila Department   

Hans DIEDERIX, Olga Patricia BOHÓRQUEZ, Héctor MORA–PÁEZ, Juan Ramón PELÁEZ , Leonardo CARDONA, Yuli CORCHUELO, Jair RAMÍREZ, and Fredy DÍAZ–MILA

https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.38.2019.12 


ISBN impreso obra completa: 978-958-52959-1-9

ISBN digital obra completa: 978-958-52959-6-4

ISBN impreso Vol. 4: 978-958-52959-5-7

ISBN digital Vol. 4: 978-958-52959-9-5


Citation is suggested as: 

Diederix, H., Bohórquez, O.P., Mora–Páez, H., Peláez, J.R., Cardona, L., Corchuelo, Y., Ramírez, J. & Díaz–Mila, F. 2020. The Algeciras Fault System of the Upper Magdalena Valley, Huila Department. In: Gómez, J. & Pinilla–Pachon, A.O. (editors), The Geology of Colombia, Volume 4 Quaternary. Servicio Geológico Colombiano, Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales 38, p. 423–452. Bogotá. https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.38.2019.12


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Abstract 


The Algeciras Fault System, of predominant dextral strike–slip displacement, is part of the major interplate transform fault system, known in Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela as the Eastern Frontal Fault System. This unique transform deformation belt connects the Nazca Plate in the Gulf of Guayaquil in Ecuador with the Caribbean Plate along the coast of Venezuela. Its dextral strike–slip displacement along the eastern boundary of the North Andean Block facilitates tectonic escape of this microplate in a NNE direction. The Algeciras Fault System constitutes the southern half of this transform belt in Colombia, the northern half runs along the foothills of the Eastern Cordillera and is known as the Guaicáramo Thrust Fault System that connects to the Boconó Fault in Venezuela. This relation underlines the significance of the Algeciras Fault System as the major active fault system in continental Colombia that plays a fundamental role in the geodynamics of the northern Andes. So far, the study of this fault system has established a notable degree of fault activity which has been corroborated by data of historic seismicity and velocity vector data of satellite geodesy obtained in recent years by the Grupo de Investigación en Geodesia Satelital of Servicio Geológico Colombiano. The presence of a series of pull–apart basins and the occurrence of monogenetic alkali basaltic volcanism within the realm of the Algeciras Fault System point to transtensional stress regimes that could possibly relate to mantle processes. Knowledge of this fault system has also important implications for seismic hazards that affect considerable parts of the country and pose a particular threat to the capital city. This chapter narrates the history of the actual state of knowledge that reflects the initial stage of a more profound study of the active tectonics of this great and important fault system.

 

Keywords: Algeciras Fault System, North Andean Block, pull–apart basin, transform deformation belt, tectonic escape.



Resumen 


El Sistema de Fallas de Algeciras, que presenta predominante desplazamiento dextral, hace parte de un sistema interplaca mayor de fallas transformantes, conocido en Ecuador, Colombia y Venezuela como el Sistema de Fallas del Frente Oriental. Este cinturón de deformación transformante conecta la Placa de Nazca en el golfo de Guayaquil en Ecuador con la Placa del Caribe a lo largo de la costa de Venezuela. Su desplazamiento dextral a lo largo del límite oriental del bloque norte de los Andes facilita el escape tectónico de esta microplaca en dirección NNE. El Sistema de Fallas de Algeciras constituye la mitad sur de este cinturón transformante en Colombia, la mitad norte corre a lo largo de las estribaciones de la cordillera Oriental y es conocido como el Sistema de Fallas de Guaicáramo que se conecta con la Falla de Boconó en Venezuela. Esta relación subraya la importancia del Sistema de Fallas de Algeciras como el principal sistema de fallas activas en la parte continental de Colombia que juega un papel fundamental en la geodinámica del norte de los Andes. Hasta el momento, el estudio de este sistema de fallas ha establecido un alto grado de actividad que ha sido corroborado por datos de sismicidad histórica y datos de vector de velocidad de geodesia satelital obtenidos recientemente por el Grupo de Investigación en Geodesia Satelital del Servicio Geológico Colombiano. La presencia de una serie de cuencas de tracción y la ocurrencia de volcanismo monogenético basáltico alcalino en el Sistema de Fallas de Algeciras apuntan a regímenes de esfuerzo transtensional que podrían estar relacionados con procesos mantélicos. El conocimiento de este sistema de fallas también tiene importantes implicaciones para la amenaza sísmica que afecta considerables partes del país y supone una amenaza para la ciudad capital. Este capítulo narra la historia del estado actual de conocimiento que refleja la etapa inicial de un estudio más profundo de la actividad tectónica de este importante sistema de fallas.

 

Palabras clave: Sistema de Fallas de Algeciras, bloque norte de los Andes, cuenca de tracción, cinturón de deformación transformante, escape tectónico.



Abbreviations 


AFS                                           Algeciras Fault System

ALOS                                     PALSAR              Satellite radar system

CASA                                      Central and South America GPS Project

DEM                                         Digital elevation models

GeoRED                           Grupo de Trabajo Investigaciones Geodésicas Espaciales

GPS                                           Global Position System

GNSS                                     Global Navigation Satellite System

JAXA                                        Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

NAB                                          North Andean Block

NASA                                    National Aeronautics and Space Administration

RSNC                                     Red Sismológica Nacional de Colombia

SGC                                         Servicio Geológico Colombiano

SENTINEL                     European satellite radar

SRTM                                     Satellite Radar Topographic Mission​



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