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​​​​​Sedimentitas marinas del Neógeno en la bahía de Tumaco, Nariño

 Volume 3 Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Formation and Evolution of the Lower Magdalena Valley Basin and San Jacinto Fold Belt of Northwestern Colombia: Insights from Upper Cretaceous to Recent Tectono–Stratigraphy 

Josué Alejandro MORA–BOHÓRQUEZ  , Onno ONCKEN, Eline LE BRETON, Mauricio IBAÑEZ–MEJIA , Gabriel VELOZA, Andrés MORA, Vickye VÉLEZ, and Mario DE FREITAS

https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.37.2019.02


ISBN impreso obra completa: 978-958-52959-1-9

ISBN digital obra completa: 978-958-52959-6-4

ISBN impreso Vol. 3: 978-958-52959-4-0

ISBN digital Vol. 3: 978-958-53131-0-1​​


Citation is suggested as: 

Mora–Bohórquez, J.A., Oncken, O., Le Breton, E., Ibañez–Mejia, M., Veloza, G., Mora, A., Vélez, V. & De Freitas, M. 2020. Formation and evolution of the Lower Magdalena Valley Basin and San Jacinto fold belt of northwestern Colombia: Insights from Upper Cretaceous to recent tectono–stratigraphy. In: Gómez, J. & Mateus–Zabala, D. (editors), The Geology of Colombia, Volume 3 Paleogene – Neogene. Servicio Geológico Colombiano, Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales 37, p. 21–66. Bogotá. https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.37.2019.02


Download chapter  ​        Download supplementary information  

Download EndNote reference 


Abstract 


Using a regional geological and geophysical dataset, we reconstructed the stratigraphic evolution of the Lower Magdalena Valley Basin and San Jacinto fold belt of northwestern Colombia. Detailed interpretations of reflection seismic data and new geochronology analyses reveal that the basement of the Lower Magdalena Basin is the northward continuation of the basement terranes of the northern Central Cordillera and consists of Permian – Triassic metasedimentary rocks intruded by Upper Cretaceous granitoids. Structural analyses suggest that the NE–SW strike of faults in basement rocks underlying the northeastern Lower Magdalena is inherited from a Jurassic rifting event, while the ESE–WNW striking faults in the western part originated from a Late Cretaceous to Eocene strike–slip and extensional episode. The Upper Cretaceous to lower Eocene sedimentary rocks preserved in the present–day San Jacinto fold belt were deposited in a submarine, forearc basin formed during the coeval oblique convergence between the Caribbean and South American Plates. A lower to middle Eocene angular unconformity at the top of the upper Paleocene to lower Eocene San Cayetano Sequence, the termination of the activity of the Romeral Fault System, and the cessation of arc magmatism are all interpreted to indicate the onset of low–angle orthogonal subduction of the Caribbean Plateau beneath South America between 56 and 43 Ma. Flat subduction of the plateau has continued to the present and would be the main cause of amagmatic post–Eocene deposition and formation of the Lower Magdalena Valley forearc basin. Extensional reactivation of inherited, pre–Oligocene basement faults was crucial for the tectonic segmentation of the basin and the formation of its two depocenters (Plato and San Jorge). Late Oligocene to early Miocene fault–controlled subsidence allowed initial infill of the Lower Magdalena, while uplift of Andean terranes made possible the connection of the Lower and Middle Magdalena Valleys, and the formation of the largest Colombian drainage system (Magdalena River system). This drainage system started delivering enormous amounts of sediments in middle Miocene times, as fault–controlled subsidence was gradually replaced by sedimentary loading. Such dramatic increase in sedimentation and the huge volume of sediment being delivered to the trench caused the formation of forearc highs in San Jacinto and of an accretionary prism farther to the west. Our results highlight the fundamental role of plate kinematics, inherited basement structure, and sediment flux on the evolution of forearc basins such as the Lower Magdalena and San Jacinto.

 

Keywords: forearc basin, basement, flat–slab subduction, tectono–stratigraphy, Lower Magdalena, San Jacinto fold belt, Caribbean, subsidence, sedimentation.



Resumen


Utilizando una base de datos regional de geología y geofísica reconstruimos la evolución estratigráfica de la Cuenca del Valle Inferior del Magdalena y del cinturón plegado de San Jacinto al noroeste de Colombia. Interpretaciones detalladas de sísmica de reflexión y nuevos análisis geocronológicos revelan que el basamento de la Cuenca del Magdalena Inferior es la continuación hacia el norte de terrenos de basamento del norte de la cordillera Central y consiste en rocas metasedimentarias del Pérmico–Triásico intruidas por granitoides del Cretácico Superior. Análisis estructurales sugieren que el patrón NE–SW de fallas de basamento en el noreste del Magdalena Inferior es heredado de un evento de rifting jurásico, mientras que el patrón ESE–WNW de la parte oeste es heredado de un episodio Cretácico Tardío a Eoceno caracterizado por deformación de rumbo y extensión. Los sedimentos del Cretácico Superior a Eoceno inferior que se encuentran preservados en el actual cinturón de San Jacinto fueron depositados en una cuenca marina de antearco formada durante la convergencia oblicua entre las placas del Caribe y de Suramérica. Una discordancia angular del Eoceno inferior a medio al tope de la secuencia San Cayetano del Paleoceno–Eoceno inferior, la terminación de la actividad del Sistema de Fallas de Romeral y el cese del magmatismo de arco se interpretan como indicativos del comienzo de la subducción ortogonal y de bajo ángulo del Plateau del Caribe bajo Suramérica entre 56 y 43 Ma. La subducción plana del plateau ha continuado hasta el presente y sería la causa del depósito pos–Eoceno y la formación del Valle Inferior del Magdalena con ausencia de magmatismo. La reactivación extensional de fallas heredadas de basamento preoligocenas fue crucial para la segmentación tectónica de la cuenca y la formación de sus dos depocentros (Plato y San Jorge). La subsidencia controlada por fallas entre el Oligoceno Tardío y el Mioceno temprano permitió el llenado inicial del Magdalena Inferior, mientras que pulsos de levantamiento coetáneos en terrenos andinos posibilitaron la conexión de los valles Inferior y Medio del Magdalena, y la formación del sistema de drenaje más grande de Colombia (sistema del río Magdalena). Este sistema de drenaje comenzó a aportar grandes cantidades de sedimento en el Mioceno medio, a medida que la subsidencia controlada por fallas fue reemplazada por subsidencia debido a la carga sedimentaria incremental. Este dramático incremento en sedimentación y los grandes volúmenes de sedimento a la fosa causaron la formación de altos de antearco en San Jacinto y de un prisma de acreción más al oeste. Nuestros resultados resaltan el papel fundamental de la cinemática de placas, de la estructura heredada del basamento y del aporte de sedimentos en la evolución de cuencas de antearco como el Magdalena Inferior y San Jacinto. 

 

Palabras clave: cuenca de antearco, basamento, subducción plana, tectonoestratigrafía, Magdalena Inferior, cinturón de San Jacinto, Caribe, subsidencia, sedimentación. 

​ 


Abbreviations

CC                                         Central Cordillera

LMV                                   Lower Magdalena Valley Basin

MCH                                  Magangué–Cicuco High

MMV                                   Middle Magdalena Valley

OEPFS                          Oca–El Pilar–San Sebastian Fault System

PFS                                       Palestina Fault System

RFS                                       Romeral Fault System

SiF                                         Sinú Fault

SJF                                        San Jerónimo Fault

SJFB                                   San Jacinto fold belt

SMF                                     Santa Marta Fault

SNSM                               Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta

STEP                                   Subduction–transform edge propagator

TWT                                     Two–way–time​



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