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​​​​Sedimentitas marinas del Neógeno en la bahía de Tumaco, Nariño

 Volume 3 Chapter 10

Chapter 10

From Facies Analysis, Stratigraphic Surfaces, and Depositional Sequences to Stratigraphic Traps in the Eocene – Oligocene Record of the Southern Llanos Basin and Northern Magdalena Basin   

Víctor M. CABALLERO, Guillermo RODRÍGUEZ, Julián F. NARANJO, Andrés MORA, and Felipe DE LA PARRA

https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.37.2019.10


Citation is suggested as: 

Caballero, V.M., Rodríguez, G., Naranjo, J.F., Mora, A. & De La Parra, F. 2020. From facies analysis, stratigraphic surfaces, and depositional sequences to stratigraphic traps in the Eocene – Oligocene record of the southern Llanos Basin and northern Magdalena Basin. In: Gómez, J. & Mateus–Zabala, D. (editors), The Geology of Colombia, Volume 3 Paleogene – Neogene. Servicio Geológico Colombiano, Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales 37, p. 283–330. Bogotá. https://doi.org/10.32685/pub.esp.37.2019.10​


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Abstract 


Available outcrop sections, rock cores, and well logs, as well as previous sedimentary geology and palynology studies, provide the opportunity to study shallow marine and continental rock records within the context of unconformity–bounded depositional sequences. This approach provides insight into the sedimentary evolution of reservoirs and their properties in the Middle Magdalena Basin and the southern Llanos Basin in Colombia.

This work illustrates and analyzes facies and facies successions of the Eocene – Oligocene stratigraphic units in the Nuevo Mundo Syncline in the northern Middle Magdalena Basin and the southern Llanos Basin. The facies analysis results support the identification of subaerial unconformities, transgressive ravinement surfaces, flooding surfaces, depositional environments, and depositional sequences. Stratigraphic correlation allows the identification of spatial and temporal distributions of the facies, the stratigraphic architecture of reservoirs and potential of several types of plays in these basins, in addition to the common stratigraphic histories.

Thirteen facies were combined into ten facies successions, which led to the identification of three depositional sequences in the southern Llanos Basin and two in the Nuevo Mundo Syncline. A strongly developed paleosol and an unconformity at the base of the Eocene units allowed a buried, preserved landscape from the end of the Paleocene to be identified in the southern Llanos Basin, and the same relief features were identified in the Middle Magdalena Basin and Eastern Cordillera. The first depositional sequence comprises the Lower Mirador, Upper Mirador, and lower part of the C8 Member of the Carbonera Formation in the southern Llanos Basin and the La Paz and Esmeraldas Formations in the Nuevo Mundo Syncline. The second depositional sequence is composed of Oligocene basal sandstones and the upper part of the C8 Member of the Carbonera Formation in the southern Llanos Basin and the Oligocene Mugrosa Formation in the Middle Magdalena Basin. The third sequence is composed of both the C7 and C6 Members of the Carbonera Formation in the southern Llanos Basin.

The porosities and permeabilities allowed the identification of the favorable reservoir units in these basins and the geometries and lithologies below and above the buried landscape explain several types of traps/plays that must be searched for in these basins, including paleogeomorphic traps, such as buried hills, fluvial and incised valleys, and erosional pinchouts, and previously identified stratigraphic traps, such as depositional pitchouts, onlap pinchouts, and facies changes.



Keywords: origin and depositional history of sedimentary basins, facies analysis, facies successions, sequence stratigraphy correlation, Llanos Basin, Middle Magdalena Basin, reservoir architecture, stratigraphic trap, reservoir properties.



Resumen 

Las secciones de afloramiento, núcleos y registros de pozo disponibles, así como estudios previos de sedimentología y palinología, son una oportunidad para estudiar los registros sedimentarios marinos someros y continentales en el contexto de la estratigrafía de secuencias. En la Cuenca del Valle Medio del Magdalena y sur de la Cuenca de los Llanos, este enfoque proporciona información sobre la evolución de los reservorios y sus propiedades.

En este trabajo se ilustran y analizan las facies y sucesiones de facies en las unidades estratigráficas del Eoceno–Oligoceno en el Sinclinal de Nuevo Mundo localizado en la parte norte de la Cuenca del Valle Medio del Magdalena y en el sector sur de la Cuenca de los Llanos. El análisis de facies contribuye en la identificación de discordancias subaéreas, superficies de ravinamiento transgresivo, superficies de inundación, ambientes de depósito y secuencias de depósito. La correlación estratigráfica permite identificar la distribución temporal y espacial de facies, la arquitectura estratigráfica de los reservorios y el potencial de varios tipos de trampas en estas cuencas, además de las historias estratigráficas comunes.

Trece facies fueron combinadas en diez sucesiones de facies, lo que ayudó a identificar tres secuencias de depósito en el sur de la Cuenca de los Llanos y dos en el Sinclinal de Nuevo Mundo. Un paleosuelo fuertemente desarrollado y una discordancia en la base de las unidades del Eoceno permitieron identificar un paisaje enterrado y fosilizado desde el final del Paleoceno en el sur de la Cuenca de los Llanos, este mismo paisaje ya había sido identificado en la Cuenca del Valle Medio del Magdalena y en la cordillera Oriental. La primera secuencia de depósito incluye las formaciones Mirador Inferior y Mirador Superior y la parte baja del Miembro C8 de la Formación Carbonera en el sur de la Cuenca de los Llanos y las formaciones La Paz y Esmeraldas en el Sinclinal de Nuevo Mundo. La segunda secuencia de depósito está compuesta por las areniscas basales del Oligoceno y la parte superior del Miembro C8 de la Formación Carbonera en el sur de la Cuenca de los Llanos y la Formación Mugrosa del Oligoceno en la Cuenca del Valle Medio del Magdalena. La tercera secuencia está compuesta por los miembros C7 y C6 de la Formación Carbonera en el sur de la Cuenca de los Llanos.

Los valores de porosidad y permeabilidad permitieron identificar las mejores unidades reservorio en estas cuencas y las geometrías y litologías debajo y encima del paisaje fosilizado explican varios tipos de trampas que deberían buscarse en estas cuencas, incluyendo trampas paleogeomorfológicas, tales como colinas enterradas, valles fluviales y valles incisos y pinchamientos por erosión, y también trampas estratigráficas identificadas previamente, tales como pinchamientos por depósito, pinchamientos por onlap y cambios de facies.

 

Palabras clave: origen e historia de depósito de cuencas sedimentarias, análisis de facies, sucesiones de facies, correlación de secuencias estratigráficas, Cuenca de los Llanos, Cuenca del Valle Medio del Magdalena, trampa estratigráfica, propiedades de reservorio.

 

Abbreviations


EC                                          Eastern Cordillera

ESLLB                             Eastern sector of the Southern Llanos Basin

FS                                           Facies successions

HAST                               High–accommodation systems tract

HST                                      Highstand systems tract

ICP                                        Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo

LCISP                               La Cira–Infantas–Sogamoso Paleohigh

LLB                                       Llanos Basin

LST                                       Lowstand systems tract

MFS                                     Maximum flooding surface

MMB                                  Middle Magdalena Basin

NMS                                   Nuevo Mundo Syncline

SLLB                                   Southern Llanos Basin

SU                                           Subaerial unconformity

T2                                              Amalgamated reservoirs sandstones of the Mirador, Barco, and Guadalupe Formations

TST                                          Transgressive systems tract

WSLLB                              Western sector of the Southern Llanos Basin



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