Omitir los comandos de cinta
Saltar al contenido principal

Servicio Geológico Colombiano

Skip Navigation Linksv1ch7
Seleccione su búsqueda


 Volume 1 Chapter 7

Chapter 7

Paleontology of the Paleozoic Rocks of the Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia   


ISBN impreso obra completa: 978-958-52959-1-9

ISBN digital obra completa: 978-958-52959-6-4

ISBN impreso Vol. 1: 978-958-52959-2-6

ISBN digital Vol. 1: 978-958-52959-7-1​

Citation is suggested as: 

Dueñas–Jiménez, H., Corredor–Bohórquez, V.E. & Montalvo–Jónsson, J. 2020. Paleontology of the Paleozoic rocks of the Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia. In: Gómez, J. & Mateus–Zabala, D. (editors), The Geology of Colombia, Volume 1 Proterozoic – Paleozoic. Servicio Geológico Colombiano, Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales 35, p. 133–148. Bogotá.

Download chapter  ​​​​​​

Download EndNote reference​​​


Paleontological data on Paleozoic fossils in the Llanos Orientales Basin of Colombia are presented here. Some of these data have not been published previously and come from technical reports prepared for Oil Operators that now form part of the Servicio Geológico Colombiano library. These data contribute to a better understanding of the Paleozoic Era in Colombia. During the Devonian Period, some organisms managed to occupy terrestrial environments. Before that, life occurred exclusively in marine environments. This progression of life included terrestrial plants that produced fern spores. In the principal depocenters of the Llanos Orientales Basin, up to 6000 m of Paleozoic sedimentites are present. They include (1) Cambrian strata, determined by associations of acritarchs; (2) Ordovician strata, identified in many wells by the presence of acritarchs, chitinozoans, very well–preserved trilobites (Jujuyaspis spp., Helieranella negritoensis, and Triarthus sp.), and graptolites (Janagraptus sp., Didymograptus extensus, and Dictyonema spp.); (3) Silurian by the presence of acritarchs Domasia bispinosa, Dactylofusa spp. and Eupoikilofusa spp.; and finally, (4) Devonian and Carboniferous strata, which are erosional remnants that contain characteristic associations of trilete spores and acritarchs. Sedimentites from the Permian have not been in the basin, most likely because they were periods of erosion or nondeposition. The good preservation of the palynomorphs is evidence that the Paleozoic rocks in the Llanos Orientales Basin are not metamorphosed and should not be considered as the economic basement of the basin.


Keywords: Paleozoic, palynomorphs, acritarchs, trilobites, Llanos Basin.


Se presenta información paleontológica sobre los fósiles paleozoicos del subsuelo de la Cuenca de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia. Parte de esta información no ha sido publicada previamente y proviene de reportes técnicos preparados para Operadores Petroleros que hoy en día forman parte de la biblioteca del Servicio Geológico Colombiano. Estos datos contribuyen a comprender mejor la era paleozoica en Colombia. Durante el Devónico, algunos organismos lograron ocupar el medio terrestre. Antes de eso, la vida ocurría exclusivamente en ambientes marinos. Esta progresión de la vida incluyó plantas terrestres que producían esporas de helechos. En los principales depocentros de la Cuenca de los Llanos Orientales se presentan hasta 6000 m de rocas sedimentarias de edad paleozoica. Estas incluyen (1) estratos cámbricos, determinados con base en asociaciones de acritarcos; (2) estratos ordovícicos, identificados en un gran número de pozos por la presencia de acritarcos, quitinozoarios, trilobites muy bien conservados (Jujuyaspis spp., Helieranella negritoensis y Triarthus sp.) y graptolites (Janagraptus sp., Didymograptus extensus y Dictyonema spp.); (3) sedimentitas silúricas caracterizadas por la presencia de los acritarcos Domasia bispinosa, Dactylofusa spp., y Eupoikilofusa spp.; y finalmente, (4) estratos devónicos y carboníferos, que se presentan como pequeños remanentes erosionales y contienen asociaciones características de esporas triletes y acritarcos. Sedimentitas del Pérmico no han sido reportadas en la cuenca, muy probablemente porque fueron periodos de erosión o no depósito de sedimentos. El buen estado de conservación de los palinomorfos permite determinar que las rocas paleozoicas en la Cuenca de los Llanos Orientales no se encuentran metamorfizadas y por ello no deben ser consideradas como el basamento económico de la cuenca.


Palabras clave: Paleozoico, palinomorfos, acritarcos, trilobites, Cuenca de los Llanos.


BP                                Before present

Ft                                  Feet


Algeo, T.J. & Scheckler, S.E. 1998. Terrestrial–marine teleconnections in the Devonian: links between the evolution of land plants, weathering processes, and marine anoxic events. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 353: 113–130.


Arminio, J.F., Yoris, F., Quijada, C., Lugo, J.M., Shaw, D., Keegan, J.B. & Marshall, J.E.A. 2013. Evidence for Precambrian stratigraphy in graben basins below the Eastern Llanos Foreland, Colombia. American Association of Petroleum Geologists International Conference and Exhibition. Abstracts, 35 p. Cartagena.


Baldis, B.A., González, S.B. & Pérez, V.E. 1984. Trilobites tremadocianos de la Formación Negritos (“perforación La Heliera"), Llanos de Colombia. III Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología. Memoirs, p 28–41. México.


Benton, M.J. 1986. The evolutionary significance of mass extinctions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 1(5): 127–130.


Benton, M.J. 2005. Vertebrate Paleontology, 3rd edition. Blackwell Science Ltd. 472 p. Bristol, UK.


Bergström, S.M., Chen, X., Gutiérrez–Marco, J.C. & Dronov, A. 2009. The new chronostratigraphic classification of the Ordovician System and its relations to major regional series and stages and to δ13C chemostratigraphy. Lethaia, 42(1): 97–107.


Bogotá, J. 1982. Estratigrafía del Paleozoico inferior en el área Amazónica de Colombia. Geología Norandina, 6: 29–38.


Briggs, D.E.G. 2015. The Cambrian explosion. Current Biology, 25(19): R864–R868.


Buatois, L.A., Mángano, M.G., Genise, J.F. & Taylor, T.N. 1998. The ichnologic record of the continental invertebrate invasion: Evolutionary trends in environmental expansion, ecospace utilization, and behavioral complexity. Palaios, 13(3): 217–240.


Burgess, S.D., Bowring, S. & Shen, S. 2014. High–precision timeline for Earth's most severe extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(9): 3316–3321.


Cediel, F. 2019. Phanerozoic Orogens of northwestern South America: Cordilleran–Type Orogens. Taphrogenic tectonics. The Maracaibo Orogenic Float. The Chocó–Panamá Indenter. In: Cediel, F. & Shaw, R.P. (editors), Geology and Tectonics of northwestern South America: The Pacific–Caribbean–Andean junction. Frontiers in Earth Sciences. Springer Nature Switzerland, p. 3–95.


Clark, E.W. 1960. Petroleum development in South America and Caribbean area in 1959. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 44(7): 1014–1057.


Cohen, K.M., Finney, S.C., Gibbard, P.L. & Fan, J.X. 2013. The ICS International Chronostratigraphic Chart. Episodes, 36(3): 199–204.


Cordani, U.G., Teixeira, W., D'Agrella–Filho, M.S. & Trindade, R.I. 2009. The position of the Amazonian Craton in supercontinents. Gondwana Research, 15(3–4): 396–407.


Darwin, C. 1859. On the origin of species by means of natural selection. John Murray, 502 p. London.


Davies, N.S. & Gibling, M.R. 2013. The sedimentary record of Carboniferous rivers: Continuing influence of land plant evolution on alluvial processes and Palaeozoic ecosystems. Earth–Science Reviews, 120: 40–79.


Delabroye, A. & Vecoli, M. 2010. The end–Ordovician glaciation and the Hirnantian Stage: A global review and questions about Late Ordovician event stratigraphy. Earth–Science Reviews, 98(3–4): 269–282.


Dueñas, H. 1984. Análisis palinológicos de muestras del pozo Entrerrios–1. Cuenca de los Llanos Orientales. Informe preparado por Geoconsulta Ltda. para Empresa Colombiana de Petróleos “Ecopetrol". 13 p. Bogotá.


Dueñas, H. 2001. Paleozoic palynological assemblages from the Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia. 34th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists. Proceedings, 16 p. San Antonio, USA.


Dueñas, H. 2002. Asociaciones palinológicas y posibilidades de hidrocarburos en el Paleozoico de la Cuenca de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia. Segunda Convención Técnica Asociación Colombiana de Geólogos y Geofísicos del Petróleo. Geología y Petróleo en Colombia. Memoirs, p. 15–17. Bogotá.


Dueñas, H. 2011. The Paleozoic of the Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia: Integration of biostratigraphic data. Report Bioss Limited 780, unpublished report, 260 p. Bogotá.


Dueñas, H. & Césari, S.N. 2005. Systematic study of Early Carboniferous palynological assemblages from the Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, 7(2): 139–152.


Dueñas, H. & Césari, S.N. 2006. Palynological evidence of Early Carboniferous sedimentation in the Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 138(1): 31–42.


Dueñas–Jiménez, H. & Montalvo–Jónsson, J. 2020. Neoproterozoic records of the Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia. In: Gómez, J. & Mateus–Zabala, D. (editors), The Geology of Colombia, Volume 1 Proterozoic – Paleozoic. Servicio Geológico Colombiano, Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales 35, p. 91–99. Bogotá.


Ecopetrol. 2010. Biostratigraphic evaluation of selected wells from the Llanos Orientales Basin. Unpublished report, 42 p. Bogotá.


Erwin, D.H., Laflamme, M., Tweedt, S.M., Sperling, E.A., Pisani, D. & Peterson, K.J. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: Early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science, 334(6059): 1091–1097.


Feo–Codecido, G., Smith, F.D., Aboud, N. & Di Giacomo, E. 1984. Basement and Paleozoic rocks of the Venezuelan Llanos basins. In: Bonini, W.E., Hargraves, R.B. & Shagam, R. (editors), The Caribbean–South American Plate boundary and regional tectonics. Geological Society of America, Memoir 162, p. 175–187.


Finnegan, S., Bergmann, K., Eiler, J.M., Jones, D.S., Fike, D.A., Eisenman, I., Hughes, N.C., Tripati, A.K. & Fischer, W.W. 2011. The magnitude and duration of Late Ordovician – Early Silurian glaciation. Science, 331(6019): 903–906. https://doi. org/10.1126/science.1200803

Galvis, J., Huguett, A. & Ruge, P. 1979. Geología de la Amazonia colombiana. Boletín Geológico, 22(3): 3–86.


Haq, B.U. & Schutter, S.R. 2008. A chronology of Paleozoic sea–level changes. Science, 322(5898): 64–68.


Hughes, C.P. 1980. A brief review of the Ordovician faunas of northern South America. II Congreso Argentino de Paleontología y Bioestratigrafía y I Congreso Latinoamericano de Paleontología. Memoirs, p. 11–22. Buenos Aires.


Hughes, C.P. 1982. The Tremadoc rocks of South America with special reference to those of Bolivia. Special Papers in Palaeontology, 30: 9–14.


Isaza, J.F. & Campos, D. 2007. Cambio climático: Glaciaciones y calentamiento global. Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, 294 p. Bogotá.

Kroeck, D.M., Pardo–Trujillo, A., Plata–Torres, A., Romero–Baéz, M & Servais, T. 2019. Peri–Gondwanan acritarchs from the Ordovician of the Llanos Orientales Basin, Colombia. Palynology: 1–14 p.


Martinez–Aguirre, F. 2011. Informe geológico final pozo exploratorio Kantaka–1. Cuenca de los Llanos Orientales, Bloque CPO 11. Preparado por Unión Temporal GEXDES–CSI para Ecopetrol. 77 p. Bogotá.


Marshall, C.R. 2006. Explaining the Cambrian “explosion" of animals. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 34: 355–384.


Maruyama, S. & Santosh, M. 2008. Snowball Earth to Cambrian explosion. Gondwana Research, 14: 1–4.


Maruyama, S., Sawaki, Y., Ebisuzaki, T., Ikoma, M., Omori, S. & Komabayashi, T. 2014. Initiation of leaking Earth: An ultimate trigger of the Cambrian explosion. Gondwana Research, 25(3): 910–944.


Miller, A.I. 1997. Dissecting global diversity patterns: Examples from the Ordovician radiation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28: 85–104.


Mojica, J. & Villarroel, C. 1990. Sobre la distribución y facies del Paleozoico inferior sedimentario en el extremo NW de Sudamérica. Geología Colombiana, 17: 219–226.


Ogg, J.G., Ogg, G.M. & Gradstein, F.M. 2016. A concise geologic time scale. Elsevier, 240 p.


Payne, J.L. & Clapham, M.E. 2012. End–Permian mass extinction in the oceans: An ancient analog for the twenty–first century? Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 40: 89–111.


Raup, D.M. 1979. Size of the Permo–Triassic bottleneck and its evolutionary implications. Science, 206(4415): 217–218.


Raup, D.M. & Sepkoski Jr., J.J. 1982. Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record. Science, 215(4539): 1501–1503.


Sepkoski Jr., J.J. 1996. Patterns of Phanerozoic extinction: A perspective from global data bases. In: Walliser, O.H. (editor), Global events and event stratigraphy in the Phanerozoic. Springer, p. 35–51. Berlin.


Sheehan, P.M. 2001. The Late Ordovician mass extinction. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 29: 331–364.


Shu, D.G. 2008. Cambrian explosion: Birth of tree of animals. Gondwana Research, 14: 219–240.


Sinanoglu, E. 1984. Estudio palinológico de los sedimentos pre–cretáceos (Formación Carrizal) en el área de Zuata, Venezuela oriental. Revista Técnica INTEVEP, 6(1): 67–89.


Smith, M.P. & Harper, D.A.T. 2013. Causes of the Cambrian explosion. Science, 341(6152): 1355–1356.


Torsvik, T.H. & Cocks, L.R.M. 2013. Gondwana from top to base in space and time. Gondwana Research, 24(3–4): 999–1030.


Théry, J.M., Peniguel, T. & Haye, G. 1986. Descubrimiento de acritarcos del Arenigiano cerca a Araracuara (Caquetá–Colombia). Ensayo de reinterpretación de esta región de la saliente del Vaupés. Geología Norandina, (9): 3–17.


Ulloa, C., Pérez, V.E. & Baldis, B. 1982. Unidades litoestratigráficas del Ordovícico de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia. V Congreso Latinoamericano de Geología. Memoirs, I, p. 109–120. Buenos Aires.


Vail, P.R., Mitchum Jr., R.M. & Thompson III, S. 1977. Seismic stratigraphy and global changes of sea level. Part 4: Global cycles of relative changes of sea level. In: Payton, C.E. (editor), Seismic stratigraphy–applications to hydrocarbon exploration. American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Memoirs 26, p. 83–97.


Webby, B.D., Paris, F., Droser, M.L. & Percival, I.G. 2004. The great Ordovician biodiversification event. Columbia University Press, 496 p. New York.


Zhang, X., Shu, D., Han, J., Zhang, Z., Liu, J. & Fu, D. 2014. Triggers for the Cambrian explosion: Hypotheses and problems. Gondwana Research, 25(3): 896–909.