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 Volume 2 Chapter 6

Chapter  6

140 Million Years of Tropical Biome Evolution   


ISBN impreso obra completa: 978-958-52959-1-9

ISBN digital obra completa: 978-958-52959-6-4

ISBN impreso Vol. 2: 978-958-52959-3-3

ISBN digital Vol. 2: 978-958-52959-8-8​

Citation is suggested as: 

Jaramillo, C. 2019. 140 million years of tropical biome evolution. In: Gómez, J. & Pinilla–Pachon, A.O. (editors), The Geology of Colombia, Volume 2 Mesozoic. Servicio Geológico Colombiano, Publicaciones Geológicas Especiales 36, p. 209–236. Bogotá.

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The origin and development of Neotropical biomes are central to our understanding of extant ecosystems and our ability to predict their future. During the Cretaceous, biomass of tropical rainforests was mostly dominated by gymnosperms and ferns, forest structure was poorly stratified and the canopy was open and dominated by gymnosperms. Extant tropical rainforests first developed at the onset of the Cenozoic, as a result of the massive extinction of the Cretaceous – Paleocene boundary. Paleocene rainforests were multistratified, with an angiosperm–dominated canopy that had high photosynthetic potential. Tropical climate has followed global patterns of warmings and coolings during the last 60 Ma. Rainforest diversity has increased during the warmings while it has decreased during coolings. Several extant biomes, including páramos, cloud forest, savannas, and dry/xerophytic forest, have increase significantly during the late Neogene at the expense of the reduction of the rainforest. Timing and drivers of these changes are still unknown but seem to be related to the onset of our modern, cool–state climate since the onset of the Pleistocene, 2.6 Ma ago.


Keywords: Neotropical biomes, tropical rainforest, gymnosperms, angiosperms, evolution.​


El origen y el desarrollo de los biomas neotropicales son fundamentales para nuestra comprensión de los ecosistemas actuales y nuestra capacidad para predecir su futuro. Durante el Cretácico, la biomasa de los bosques tropicales estaba dominada principalmente por gimnospermas y helechos, la estructura del bosque no poseía una estratificación marcada y el dosel era abierto y dominado por gimnospermas. Los bosques tropicales actuales se desarrollaron por primera vez al inicio del Cenozoico, como resultado de la extinción masiva del límite Cretácico–Paleoceno. Los bosques tropicales del Paleoceno eran multiestratificados, con un dosel dominado por angiospermas con alto potencial fotosintético. El clima tropical ha seguido patrones globales de calentamiento y enfriamiento durante los últimos 60 Ma. La diversidad del bosque tropical ha aumentado durante los calentamientos y disminuido durante los enfriamientos. Varios biomas que hoy existen, incluyendo páramos, bosques nubosos, sabanas y bosques secos/xerofíticos, han crecido significativamente desde el Neógeno tardío en áreas ocupadas previamente por el bosque tropical. Las causas y temporalidad de este cambio masivo en el paisaje aún se desconocen, pero parecen estar relacionadas con el inicio de nuestro clima frío moderno desde el comienzo del Pleistoceno, hace 2,6 Ma.


Palabras clave: biomas neotropicales, bosque tropical, gimnospermas, angiospermas, evolución.


PETM                 Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum

ETM                      Eocene Thermal Maximum

MMCO              Middle Miocene climatic optimum

GABI                   Great American Biotic Interchange

ITCZ                    Intertropical convergence zone

CAM                   Crassulacean acid metabolism

WUE                    Water use efficiency

DNA                    Deoxyribonucleic acid

WWF                  World Wildlife Fund


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